Indigenous Languages of the Andes
Whilst learning some key Spanish or Portuguese phrases before your visit to Latin America is sure to be appreciated, in a continent with over 600 indigenous groups, why not learn a few words from one of the 700 indigenous languages of the region to really impress?
For me, the variety of colourful characters and personalities I’ve encountered on my travels have had an immeasurably positive impact on my experiences and left me with lasting memories and friendships. Even without any prior knowledge of the local languages, you’ll find it impossible to explore Latin America without meeting a host of warm and friendly people. Nonetheless, I have little doubt that speaking the language (or at least attempting to!) made way for new opportunities and experiences that I wouldn’t necessarily have had if I’d shied away from my phrasebook. From enjoying a home-cooked dinner with a Bolivian family whom I met on a flight, to listening to one of Bolivia’s most popular guitarists, Manuel Monroy Chazarreta, play live in somebody’s living room, I am sure that those early, shaky attempts at speaking the language influenced my experiences for the better.
I should confess that when I speak about my ‘attempts to speak the language’, I am predominantly referring to Spanish and Portuguese. My grasp of indigenous languages is currently limited to a smattering of Quechuan words; some useful, such as the term ‘cuy’ which refers to the Andean delicacy of cooked guinea pig, and others less so, ‘ch’aki’ meaning ‘hangover’ for instance! However, as the most widely spoken indigenous language in Latin America, with some 10 million speakers spread across Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, Colombia and Argentina, knowing even just a few Quechuan terms can go a long way to enriching your experience of Andean culture and traditions.
To refer to ‘Quechua’ in the singular is problematic due to its widely fluctuating dialects. In fact the Quechuan language varies so much so that speakers of different dialects are not always mutually intelligible! Often referred to as the ‘language of the Incas’, Quechuan in its various forms, was actually spoken long before the creation of the Incan Empire and continued to grow after its downfall. Upon Spanish colonisation of the continent, Quechuan was used as the main means of communication between Spaniards and the indigenous population, as well by the Roman Catholic Church as the language of evangelisation. It is as a result of this, that the language extended further afield than its original roots amidst the Andes of Bolivia, Peru, Chile and Ecuador. The Quechua culture itself is community oriented with a focus on community action and mutual help, known as ‘ayni’. Quechuan society is structured around the idea of reciprocity, in which communities work together to help and support one another. This strong focus on community organisation allowed Quechuan communities in Peru to successfully defend themselves against guerrilla warfare during the more tumultuous times of the nation’s history.
Whilst some argue that the Quechuan spoken in the Peruvian city of Cuzco, the historic capital of the Incan Empire, is the purest form, I am instead going to look at the dialect of South Bolivian Quechua, which is spoken in the central and Southern area of Bolivia as well as the most northerly parts of Argentina and Chile. This dialect, known as qulla or colla, is spoken by up to 2.8 million people making it the most widely spoken indigenous language in Bolivia. It is also the same dialect that I would overhear when getting lost in the vast street markets of Bolivia.
FOOD AND DRINK:
Abajeño – purple skinned potato
Anticuchos – skewers of finely sliced meat (normally heart) grilled in a satay-esque sauce. A favourite of drunken Bolivian revellers in the early hours of the morning.
Api – A thick, fragrant beverage generally made from purple corn, cinnamon, cloves and citrus zest. It’s served steaming hot (perfect for those chilly Andean mornings) often along with a ‘pastel’, a deep fried pastry pocket filled with cheese and dusted with sugar (much better than it sounds)
Chicha – a traditional alcoholic drink made from fermented corn. Often sold by the bucket and drank using the gourd of a fruit, this insipid tasting drink has an acquired taste which, for some reason, tends to get better with each sip.
Ch’arki – jerky (usually made using beef or llama meat)
Chuño – a freeze dried potato (traditionally prepared by exposing them to the night time temperatures of the Andean plains followed by the intense sunlight of day over a five day period) – not to everybody’s taste!
Raphi! – Hello
Wuasleglla! – Good bye!
Mascata Munaqui? - How much do you want?
Allichu – Please
Diuspagarasunki – Thanks
Mana japikkana – I don’t understand
Ari – Yes
Mana – No
NB: Unfortunately, when it comes to the pronunciation of these words I am no expert, hence the lack of a pronunciation guide. However, having stumbled clumsily through the Spanish language during my first visit to Latin America, I have come to the conclusion that even the most tongue-tied attempt at speaking a new language is highly rewarding!
Yearning for an Andes experience? Take a look at our Signature Andes: Highlands of Peru, Bolivia & Chile holiday which captures the natural and cultural highlights of southern Andes of Peru, the altiplano of Bolivia and the salt flats straddling the border with Chile.